The greatest change to take place has been in the minds of people whose perception of infertility was almost always based on a myth-related taboo. The fact is: It is not a curse from God, but a medical problem requiring medical attention.
The problem of infertility has existed since time immemorial. Since the last 20 years society has witnessed an array of technological advancements in all fields including that of reproductive health. As a consequence, the awareness on available techniques to cure infertility, have spread far and wide.
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Elucidating the factors responsible for male infertility, the commonest problem relates to a low count, motility and malformation of sperm. The vital cause for this state of affairs is infection - there in early childhood and teenage years. The infection may be sexually transmitted or caused by tuberculosis or other viral infections such as mumps, chicken pox and much earlier, small pox, which almost always affect the testes.
But one of the most potent risks, less understood by smokers is the danger of infertility they are exposed to. There is overwhelming scientific evidence showing tremendous correlation between smoking and infertility. Addictive drugs and alcohol play roles in causing infertility, directly or indirectly in terms of diminished vigor and performance
Varicocele is a condition in which excess blood from dilated veins, flows into the testes and stagnates there, increasing its total temperature. However, with varicocele, the temperature of the testes is raised. This in turn affects the sperm production and its concentration, making for the man sub fertile.
Besides these factors, the general health of the male is just as important for being fertile. In fact the man's occupation itself could be a contributory factor to his being infertile. Working in the radiology department, nuclear plants, dealing with dyes, furnaces, etc., without proper care and protection to the genitalia, can affect sperm count.
Infertility in females
The basic causes of infertility in females relates to ovulation and tubal malfunctions. Ovulation problems are most common. This again depends upon the regularity of the menstrual cycle. In yet other cases, despite complete development of all organs, the victims suffer from disorganized hormonal control. This can result in disovulation or anovulation, that is: there is infrequent or no ovulation at all.
A number of women exhibit problems relating to the fallopian tube. It is a delicate structure and if the tube is affected in any way by even the smallest of injury, infection, operation, etc, its vital structures are lost and these tubes are unable to perform their functions. In this respect, it has been found that unnecessary D&Cs have resulted in infections. Very often people are under the misguided notion that performing a D&C implies enabling ovulation, fertilization and finally pregnancy. However, this is far from the truth.
Abortions can be dangerous
Abortions performed under unhygienic conditions and sexually transmitted diseases are other sources of infection destroying the tube, its capacity to function. Also, neighboring infection, for instance a burst appendix, pus in the bowels or any infection in the neighboring structures can affect the highly delicate and vulnerable tube, which can become blocked or can develop attachments, which prevent its movement and thereby obstructing pregnancy.
Improper development of the uterus may also cause infertility in women. This could be manifested as a double uterus, or as a partition in the uterus called the septum, being incomplete. Such developmental problems where implantation becomes affected result in infertility or very early and recurrent abortions and premature labor.
Once the basic causative factor is identified, treatment may vary in time duration from a single counseling to a few years, depending upon the intensity of the problem and the age of the women. In the case of the 'Gulf Syndrome' where men working in the Gulf countries visit their wives for a month or two, once in two years or thereabout, the problem is compounded and the success rate of impregnation is consequently lowered.