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A.T Rex Named Sue in Children's City

A.T Rex Named Sue in Children's City

Children's city is organizing and hosting a new exhibition from USA called "A.T rex Named Sue" from 28/2/ till 23/5/2008 at the first floor and we want from you and your respectful school to be part of it come and visit us to see SUE.

Exhibition Overview A T. Rex Named Sue brings the story of the largest, most complete, and best-preserved T. rex, A full-sized cast of Sue's skeleton is the centerpiece of this traveling exhibition, and family-friendly interactive exploring the paleontology that has helped scientists reconstruct Sue's life and legacy surrounds it. Interactive, touchable replicas, two videos, audible, and colorful graphics deliver content about dinosaur science using a combination of visual, tactile, audible, and aromatic activities. The exhibition includes a group of bone casts that Children's City constructs a dig pit activity with a wide variety of workshops and movies.

Exhibit elements:
1) Sue’s Skeleton The centerpiece of A T. rex Named Sue is a fully articulated cast skeleton of Sue mounted on a stage. Dramatic lighting throws a spectacular shadow of the skeleton against a graphic backdrop, and a reading rail around the stage engages visitors with:

• touchable casts of Sue’s arm bone, tail bone, and rib; • interactive activities that let visitors interpret surface features and anomalies of Sue’s bones; • Interpretive graphics and text that relate the stories of Sue’s history, from discovery to display, and incorporate actual headlines, news articles, and behind-the-scenes photos taken at The Field Museum.

2) Sue’s Skull
Visitors first encounter an enticing shadow of Sue’s skull moving across a scrim. On the other side, visitors can get an eye-to-eye look at a cast of Sue’s skull, a whopping 5 feet in length, that rotates and growls. Rail-mounted elements surrounding the skull include:

• touchable models of Sue’s teeth;
• an interactive activity that lets visitors diagnose a pathology in Sue’s jawbone;
• graphics and text that describe the story of Sue’s skull from discovery to display;
• the legal dispute over Sue’s bones and how it led to Sue’s purchase at auction;
• The process of making the casts from the fossilized bones.

3) Interactives
Visitor-controlled mechanical models and interactive pods encourage visitors to explore in-depth topics related to Sue, T. rex, and dinosaur science:

4) Videos (encased in free-standing pods with graphics)
• An entertaining video
• A documentary-style video

For more information please do not hesitate to contact Mr. Tamim Al Adwan Telephone: 04-3340808 (EXT: 235) Fax: 04-3341122

Background History on Sue
Sue was a Tyrannosaurus rex that roamed North America about 67 million years ago, one of the last dinosaur species and one of the largest flesh-eaters to have ever inhabited the Earth. The “Tyrant Lizard King,” with its extraordinarily powerful jaws and massive serrated steak-knife teeth, still dominates popular perceptions of the Age of Dinosaurs.

Sue the T. rex is named for Sue Hendrickson, who discovered the dinosaur near Faith, South Dakota, during the summer of 1990 on a commercial fossil hunting trip. Shortly after its discovery, the fossil became the center of an intense ownership dispute. A protracted court battle ensued, and the court ruled that Sue belonged to the rancher on whose land she was discovered. The rancher decided to sell Sue at public auction.

On October 4, 1997, the auction took place at Sotheby’s auction house in New York. To ensure that Sue would be preserved for future generations of scientists and visitors, The Field Museum in Chicago purchased Sue for $8.4 million. Field Museum preparators spent more than 30,000 hours preparing the more than 250 bones and teeth in Sue’s skeleton. After the bones were fully prepared, The Field Museum made exact, fully articulated replicas so that people around the world would have the opportunity to view and study Sue.

As the most complete T. rex specimen ever discovered, Sue has tremendous value for scientists and the general public. Previously, only a handful of partial T. rex specimens had been found, none more than 60% complete. At 90% complete and exquisitely preserved, Sue is the most celebrated member of its species, permitting more detailed studies of the biology, growth, and behavior of T. rex than had previously been possible.
Sue has helped us make important discoveries about T. rex: • Ear Bone. Sue is the first T. rex ever found with a tiny ear bone called a stapes. The more than six-inch-long, pencil-thin ear bone transmits sound vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear. This delicate ear bone is almost never preserved in dinosaur fossils and promises to give scientists a better understanding of the evolution of ear bones and hearing in dinosaurs and birds. The shape, size and orientation of the external ear hole also may be a feature unique to the tyrannosaurid family, including T. rex.

• Wishbone. Sue’s skeleton includes the first furcula, or wishbone, ever found in a T. rex. Present in bird skeletons, the wishbone provides evidence for interpreting the relationship of advanced theropods (a group of two-legged, meat-eating dinosaurs) to birds, the descendants of dinosaurs. The furcula will also help scientists investigate the function of wishbones in dinosaurs.

• Birdlike Leg Muscles. Soft tissues are almost never preserved in dinosaurs, but Sue’s beautifully preserved bones reveal detailed evidence of the attachments and orientations of the dinosaur’s limb muscles. This has allowed scientists to reconstruct the most accurate picture ever, from hip to foot, of the birdlike hind limb muscles in Tyrannosaurus.

• Tail Muscles. A mass of gnarled, bony overgrowths fusing two of Sue’s vertebrae together also preserves a remarkable anatomical feature rarely seen in fossil dinosaurs: detailed, natural mold impressions of tail muscles.

• A Fast-Walking Dinosaur. Based on an analysis of Sue’s well-preserved foot bones, Field Museum research associate Matt Carrano, an expert on dinosaur posture and locomotion, concluded that Sue’s top speed was probably a fast walk of about 15 miles per hour, about the maximum speed of an elephant. While this may seem slow for a T. rex, Carrano has pointed out that most of Sue’s dinosaur contemporaries would not have been nearly as swift.

• The Neck Bone’s Connected to the Skull Bone…. Sue’s skeleton contains a pair of tiny bones that lie between the first neck vertebra and the back of the skull. Called proatlas bones, these are rarely seen in dinosaur fossils and are the first ever found in a T. rex. Birds do not have proatlas bones. Their presence in both an advanced theropods such as T. rex and in the ancient theropod Herrerasaurus may help scientists tease apart anatomical transformations and evolutionary relationships in the transition from advanced theropods to birds.

• 3-D Picture of the Skull. The Field Museum’s research on Sue marked the first time that a high-resolution, industrial x-ray scanner was used to create a detailed, 3-D image of the inside of a T. rex skull. (One famous early study involved cutting a T. rex skull in half, altering the fossil forever.) These CT images, interpreted by Field Museum paleontologist Chris Brochu and published in the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, showed very large olfactory bulbs—indicating that Sue had a keen sense of smell. Also discovered in the skull was a new air sinus never seen before in a T. rex. Detailed analyses of the nerve passages in Sue’s braincase revealed new evidence from T. rex that birds are flying theropod (two-legged, meat-eating) dinosaurs.

• A Sensitive Snout. An extensive series of holes in the upper jawbone of Sue’s skull appear to be aligned in a pattern. This observation, new to T. rex, suggests that the dinosaur’s snout was highly sensitive to touch.

• New Clues to Evolutionary Relationships of Dinosaurs and Birds. Unusually well-preserved fossils like Sue are invaluable for resolving debates about evolution. Field Museum researchers studying the 90-percent complete T. rex skeleton and skull have discovered important new evidence supporting the theory that birds are descended from theropod dinosaurs. Findings include the wishbone, the birdlike limb muscles, birdlike air sacs (pneumatization) throughout the skeleton and skull, and several features in Sue’s braincase—revealed for the first time through high-resolution X-ray (CT) images of the skull.

• Living Fast. In a recent study featured on the cover of the journal Nature, scientists determined that T. rex reached its massive adult size due to an extraordinary growth spurt that stretched from about 14 to 18 years of age. Scientists studied the bones of Sue and other T. rex specimens to find that, during the peak in its growth spurt, T. rex gained 2.1 kilograms (4.6 pounds) per day, developing into a more than 5,000-kilogram (11,000-pound) giant, one of the largest terrestrial carnivorous animals ever. T. rex grew faster but had a shorter lifespan than an African elephant, the only living land animal of a comparable size.

• Dying Young. In the same study, scientists discovered that Sue was 28 years old at the time of death. By counting lines in tyrannosaurid bones that correspond to annual growth cycles, researchers found that T. rex could live for about 30 years, one-third of which would have been spent at adult size. Judging by evidence of disease, arthritis, and broken bones, scientists believe that Sue was a “train wreck” at death and probably died of natural causes.

• Tough Life of a Tyrannosaur. Sue’s bones display several abnormalities, from a deformed right arm to jaws riddled with holes. Initially, scientists assumed that these oddities were battle wounds from clashes with other dinosaurs. Now scientists believe most of Sue’s bone abnormalities are just healed-over evidence of injuries, infections, and diseases—the normal wear-and-tear of life in the Cretaceous.

• Male or Female? Before Sue was found, body size and anatomical differences were used to speculate whether a T. rex was male or female. One important clue was believed to be the location of a v-shaped tail bone called a chevron. It had been suggested that Sue was a female, based on the assumption that the first chevron was positioned far from the pelvis in female crocodiles. But after piecing together the skeleton, scientists discovered that Sue’s first chevron was actually closer to the pelvis, more like that of males in some living reptiles. After surveying living reptiles and other theropod dinosaur specimens, Field Museum scientists concluded that the position of the chevron varies too widely to make it a good indicator of gender, even in modern reptiles. The bottom line: we may never know if Sue was male or female.

• Was T. rex Warm-Blooded? More and more evidence points to the fact that some dinosaurs were fast-moving, and perhaps warm-blooded animals. Living warm-blooded birds and mammals (like humans) have a series of bones in their nasal passages, called turbinates, that help to warm and humidify air before it enters their lungs. The x-ray scans of Sue’s skull allowed Field Museum scientists to look for this warm-blooded feature for the first time in T. rex. While thin bony structures were found in Sue’s nose, it was concluded that they were not turbinates. This does not necessarily prove that T. rex was not warm-blooded; it may mean that turbinates evolved later on in the theropod-bird lineage, and that these dinosaurs had some other mechanism for warming the air they breathed.

Source : Dubai Municipality
Posted : 02/03/2008

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